Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds most vessels and has now been recognized as a regulator of vascular functions. This effect of PVAT has been mostly demonstrated in vessels obtained from rats and mice. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate anti-contractile effect of PVAT surrounding human coronary bypass grafts such as saphenous vein (SV) and internal mammary artery (IMA). Moreover, we aimed to determine the involvement of prostanoids in the anticontractile effect of PVAT. Human SV and IMA preparations were set up in an organ bath. The presence of PVAT in SV and IMA preparations significantly attenuated the contractile response to noradrenaline (NA). Preincubation with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, increased NA contraction in SV preparations with PVAT. This effect was not observed in IMA preparation with PVAT incubated with indomethacin. The lower measurements of prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) released from PVAT surrounding IMA versus SV supported these effects. In conclusion, our results show that PVAT of SV could attenuate NA-induced contraction by releasing both PGE(2) and prostacyclin (PGI(2)). In contrast to SV, PVAT of IMA exerts its anti-contractile effect independently from prostanoids. These observations suggest that retaining PVAT in human SV and IMA preparations may have potential clinical implications to improve coronary bypass graft patency. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.