Plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation levels of 20 patients with histopathologically confirmed testis cancer and 20 healthy control individuals were studied between November 1995 and June 1997. The group with testis cancer had a mean age of 24.8 +/- 8.2 yr and the control group's mean age was 28.3 +/- 6.9 yr. Stage distribution of the testis cancer cases were 4 of stage A, 10 of stage B, and 6 of stage C. Blood samples of the patients were drawn after orchiectomy and after 12 h fasting before chemotherapy. Mean plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation levels were detected to be 14.51 +/- 5.30 nmol malondialdehide (MDA)/mL and 9.30 +/- 2.06 nmol MDA/g hemoglobin (Hb), respectively, in the testis cancer group, whereas the healthy control group had mean plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation levels of 10.7 +/- 1.82 nmol MDA/mL and 6.18 +/- 1.68 nmol MDA/g Hb, respectively. Plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation values of the testis cancer patients were determined to be statistically significantly higher than that of the health control group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). No significant correlation was determined between plasma, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation levels and tumor markers. In conclusion, it can be said that an increase in the lipid peroxidation may play a role in the pathogenesis of testis carcinomas in addition to the other causes.