This article revises the effects of the metacognition development on project-based learning by giving different cases for the graduate level students (n=86) at the innovation and entrepreneurship courses. The objective of the article is to understand clearly and deeply how metacognitive learning methodologies affect the learning process and outcome. As a result, cases in which everyday challenges, such as social, economic, cultural, and environmental are solved develop better environments for the development of metacognition due to the fact that the highest 'meta-level' of cognition is implicated. In the project-based learning, by solving different problems it is possible to develop creative ideas while improving highly developed skills. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.