Tissue oxygenation is a strong predictor of surgical site infection (SSI). Mild intraoperative hypercapnia increases peripheral, gastrointestinal, and splanchnic tissue oxygenation and perfusion. Hypercapnia also has anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unknown whether hypercapnia reduces SSI risk. We tested the hypothesis that mild intraoperative hypercapnia reduces the risk of SSI in patients having colon resection surgery.