Evidence for heterogeneity in response to treatment in mammary tumors of dogs as happens in humans

TURNA Ö., ÜVEZ A., BAYKAL A., Develi E. S., Diramali M., SÖNMEZ K., ...More

VETERINARY RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, vol.47, no.1, pp.111-120, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11259-022-09934-3
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.111-120
  • Keywords: Mammary tumor, Chemotherapy, Chemosensitivity, ATP assay, Canine, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION, IN-VITRO, CANCER, APOPTOSIS, EXPRESSION, CASPASES, KI-67, PCNA
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


Tumors are formed by various clones developed over a long time. This gives rise to a heterogeneous nature. This heterogeneity is the hardest challenge in the treatment of cancers because it is the main reason for drug resistance. This is a well-known fact in human cancer. Therefore, we have reasoned that if the tumor heterogeneity in canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs) could be shown by an ex vivo assay, which will be used first time in veterinary oncology practice, this could be used further in clinics. To achieve this, twenty-six patients were included in the study. Tumor tissues were obtained from animals during routine surgery. Tumor cells were isolated and seeded ex vivo. The cells were exposed to anticancer drugs that are clinically used. Seven days after the treatment, chemosensitivity has luminometrically been assayed by ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA). It has clearly been shown that all the tumor tissues have responded to treatment differently, implying that heterogeneity exists in mammary tumors. There has also been found that there was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between tumor size and drug index. However, there has been no correlation between drug index and metastasis to lymph nodes. Hyperplasic areas had relatively higher PCNA values. The results of our study demonstrate the heterogeneity in responses to in vitro drugs. Clinical trials based on test results and follow-up studies with large numbers of animals are needed to prove that such chemotherapeutic activity assessment tests can be clinically useful in predicting drug responses in CMGTs.