Asynchronous signal processing for brain-computer interfaces


Senay S., Chaparro L. F., Sun M., Sclabassi R., Akan A.

TURKISH JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCES, vol.19, no.2, pp.275-289, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

Abstract

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a way to monitor and treat neurological diseases. An important

application of BCIs is the monitoring and treatment of epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by

recurrent unprovoked seizures, symptomatic of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the

brain. BCIs contain an array of sensors that gather and transmit data under the constrains of low-power and

minimal data transmission. Asynchronous sigma delta modulators (ASDMs) are considered an alternative to

synchronous analog to digital conversion. ASDMs are non-linear feedback systems that enable time-encoding

of analog signals, from which the signal can be reconstructed. An efficient reconstruction of time-encoded

signals can be achieved using a prolate spheroidal waveform (PSW) projection. PSWs have finite time support

and maximum energy concentration within a given bandwidth. The ASDM time-encoding is related to the

duty-cycle modulation and demodulation, which shows that sampling is non-uniform. For transmission of

data from BCI, we propose a modified orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique using

chirp modulation. Our method generalizes the chirp modulation of binary streams with non-uniform symbol

duration. Our theoretical results relate to recent continuous-time digital signal processing and compressive

sampling theories.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a way to monitor and treat neurological diseases. An important application of BCIs is the monitoring and treatment of epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, symptomatic of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. BCIs contain an array of sensors that gather and transmit data under the constrains of low-power and minimal data transmission. Asynchronous sigma delta modulators (ASDMs) are considered an alternative to synchronous analog to digital conversion. ASDMs are non-linear feedback systems that enable time-encoding of analog signals, from which the signal can be reconstructed. An efficient reconstruction of time-encoded signals can be achieved using a prolate spheroidal waveform (PS W) projection. PSWs have finite time support and maximum energy concentration within a given bandwidth. The ASDM time-encoding is related to the duty-cycle modulation and demodulation, which shows that sampling is non-uniform. For transmission of data from BCI, we propose a modified orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique using chirp modulation. Our method generalizes the chirp modulation of binary streams with non-uniform symbol duration. Our theoretical results relate to recent continuous-time digital signal processing and compressive sampling theories.