The exchange of Turkish and Greek population, which became definite upon an agreement signed between Turkey and Greece at the Lausanne Conference, caused crucial consequences. This period, signifying a compulsory removal of people from their homeland, was a main issue for the Turkish Republic. At the end of ten-year process of transforming minorities in Turkey and Greece into immigrants, parties, through exchange, achieved religious identity integrity. However, considering the qualifications and the value of immigrants, it is a reality that Turkey suffered significant losses. Whereas Greeks migrating to Greece from Turkey were a tradesman urban population, Turks migrating from Greece to Turkey were a farmer peasant population.