Background. Ischemia/reperfusion is a complex set of events with severe pathologic consequences. Reperfusion initiates both the local and systemic damage in part through rapid oxygen generation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a scavenger of free radical species, inhibits neutrophil accumulation, acts as a vasodilator and also improves microcirculation. In present study, we examined the protective effect of NAC in a rat hind limb ischemia/reperfusion model. Dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), a well-known antioxidant was also tested for comparison.