The role of the circadian timing system on drug metabolism and detoxification: an update


OKYAR A., ÖZTÜRK CİVELEK D., AKYEL Y. K., Surme S., PALA KARA Z., Kavakli İ. H.

Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

Abstract

Introduction: The 24-hour variations in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination, collectively known as pharmacokinetics, are fundamentally influenced by rhythmic physiological processes regulated by the molecular clock. Recent advances have elucidated the intricacies of the circadian timing system and the molecular interplay between biological clocks, enzymes and transporters in preclinical level. Area covered: Circadian rhythm of the drug metabolizing enzymes and carrier efflux functions possess a major role for drug metabolism and detoxification. The efflux and metabolism function of intestines and liver seems important. The investigations revealed that the ABC and SLC transporter families, along with cytochrome p-450 systems in the intestine, liver, and kidney, play a dominant role in the circadian detoxification of drugs. Additionally, the circadian control of efflux by the blood–brain barrier is also discussed. Expert opinion: The influence of the circadian timing system on drug pharmacokinetics significantly impacts the efficacy, adverse effects, and toxicity profiles of various drugs. Moreover, the emergence of sex-related circadian changes in the metabolism and detoxification processes has underscored the importance of considering gender-specific differences in drug tolerability and pharmacology. A better understanding of coupling between central clock and circadian metabolism/transport contributes to the development of more rational drug utilization and the implementation of chronotherapy applications.