Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the influence of local application of thymoquinone (TQ) on bone healing in experimental bone defects infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG). Methods: Forty-two female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. A bone defect was created on the right tibia of all animals. The PG, PG/collagen membrane (COL) and PG/ TQ/COL groups were infected with PG. In the COL and PG/COL groups, the defects were covered with a COL; in the TQ/COL and PG/TQ/COL groups, the defects were covered with a TQ-containing COL. After 28 days, all animals were sacrificed. Quantitative measurements of new bone formation and osteoblast lining, as well as semiquantitative measurements of capillary density and tissue response, were analyzed. Furthermore, the presence of bacterial infections in defect areas was evaluated. Results: The new bone formation, osteoblast number, and capillary density were significantly higher in the TQ groups than in the control groups (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.01, respectively). In a comparison between the TQ/COL group, with a TQ-containing COL (TQ/COL), and the PG-infected TQ-containing COL (PG/TQ/COL) group, the newly formed bone and capillary density were higher in the TQ/COL group (P<0.01). When the control group was compared to the PG, PG/COL, and PG/TQ/COL groups in terms of tissue response, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.001, P=0.02, and P=0.041, respectively). The intensity of the inflammatory cell reaction was higher in the PG, PG/COL, and PG/TQ/COL groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the local application of a TQ-containing COL positively affected bone healing even if the bone defects were infected. The results suggest that TQ increased angiogenesis and showed promise for accelerating bone defect healing. Further research is warranted to support these findings and reach more definitive conclusions.