Large-scale sequencing methodologies have helped us identify numerous genomic alterations and we have started to scratch the surface of many new targets for treatment of cancer and the associated predictive biomarkers. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a highly appreciated anti-cancer molecule because of its ability to selectively target cancer cells. However, confluence of information suggests that cancer cells develop resistance against TRAIL-based therapeutics. It is being realized that overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins and inactivation of pro-apoptotic proteins significantly impairs TRAIL triggered apoptosis, particularly in clinical settings. Re-balancing of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins and upregulation of death receptors with functionally active extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are necessary to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL based therapeutics. microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulation of myriad of molecular processes and characterized into oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs. Accumulating data has identified miRNAs which positively or negatively regulate TRAIL mediated signaling in cancer cells, helping us understand different steps at which TRAIL-mediated apoptotic signaling can be targeted. Here, we assess the status of our understanding of the mechanisms related to miRNA regulation of TRAIL mediated signaling, as well as the existing gaps therein, and discuss the challenges and opportunities that will help us get closer to personalized medicine.