Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy diagnosed among men after lung cancer in developed countries. Investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PCa is urgently needed in order to develop better therapeutic strategies and to reveal more effective therapeutic targets. In this study, we aimed at exploring the potential functions of CASC11 in association with miR-145 and IGF1R during the malignant progression of PCa cells. Methods We initially investigated the oncogenic potential of noncoding members of CASC gene family and analyzed the effects of CASC11 overexpression on proliferation, migration, and colony formation ability of DU145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCa cells. We, then, exprlored the association of CASC11, miR-145, and IGF1R expression and their impacts on PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in in vitro models. Results In silico analysis revealed that of the CASC family only CASC11 showed consistent results considering its differential expression as well as its association with the overall survival of patients. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of CASC11 significantly increased the proliferation, colony formation, and migration capacity in all three cell lines. CASC11 overexpression caused suppression of miR-145 and overexpression of IGF1R, leading to activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusion In summary, we found that CASC11 is upregulated in PCa cells and clinical tumor samples in comparison to corresponding controls and revealed that ectopic CASC11 overexpression promotes cellular phenotypes associated with PCa progression through CASC11/miR-145/IGF1R axis.