Archaeological findings show that the Lower Kızılırmak Valley (Turkey) was a preferred location for human settlement during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. This study examines the reasons that the ancient inhabitants chose this region, and its suitability in terms of land use and land cover characteristics. The aim of this study is to reconstruct Bronze Age and Iron Age land use characteristics using geographic data. The research was based on a database we compiled from the geographical features of the Kızılırmak Delta and vicinity including the geomorphology, hydrography, soil, climate, and vegetation. Analysis and interpretations were then made, based on this database. Results show that the geomorphologic, hydrographic, soil, and vegetation characteristics of this region played a decisive role in the choice of the Lower Kızılırmak Valley for settlement during the Bronze Age and Iron Age and that the land use/land cover characteristics of the region in that period were shaped by these physical geographical characteristics.