Tuberculosis is a disease as old as human history and has affected every area of human life. The struggle against tuberculosis had been started by non-governmental organizations and achieved success after second world war. In Anatolia as well as all over the world fight against tuberculosis, with the leading names in medicine, started during the Ottoman Empire. In the following years of struggle within the executive team will host association (Istanbul Anti-tuberculosis Association) was founded in 1918. Due to political developments that occurred shortly after standing association studies, in 1923, the Republic of Turkey in Izmir during the re-started. In the 1925 and 1927 a national medical congress, tuberculosis as the main election issue, was organized, and then in 1928 in Istanbul Tuberculosis Association again take action in the fight against decisive role in association studies have begun to undertake. In the years 1953-1973, UNICEF, Ministry of Health and later efforts Turkish National Anti-tuberculosis Association jointly significant results were obtained in the fight against tuberculosis. These positive statements given the lethargy environment, economic and political crises in the last 10 years, in parallel with the increase of tuberculosis around the world experiencing, there was an increase in Turkey. In 1986, the National Anti-Tuberculosis Federation was founded by Anti-Tuberculosis Associations. The Anti-Tuberculosis Federation has put in practice DOTS programme in 2005 in Turkey. In conclusion, we evaluate that the Anti-Tuberculosis Associations in Turkey have played a major role in struggle against tuberculosis in Turkey since the last century.