This study reports the effect of annealing temperature on the structure and mechanical properties of Zn0.95Mg0.05O bulk samples by using digital Vickers microhardness tester, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray measurements. The samples were prepared using Zn and Mg based alkoxed by the sol-gel technique and annealed at various temperatures (500, 600, 700 and 800 degrees C). Vickers microhardness, elastic modulus, yield strength and fracture toughness values of Zn0.95Mg0.05O bulk samples were separately calculated and compared with each other. The experimental results of hardness measurements were analyzed using Meyer's law, Proportional Specimen Resistance (PSR) and Elastic/Plastic Deformation (EPD) models and Hays-Kendall (HK) approach. Finally, it was seen that HK approach is the most successful model for the microhardness analysis of these materials. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.