Determination of the Systematics of Plectrum Patterns and the Forms of Technical Conceptual Expression in Baglama Teaching and Performance


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Benli Y.

Rast Muzikoloji Dergisi, vol.11, no.3, pp.363-394, 2023 (Scopus)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.12975/rastmd.20231132
  • Journal Name: Rast Muzikoloji Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.363-394
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Systematic of Tezene [Plectrum] patterns and the determination of their technical and conceptual forms in baglama teaching and performance

 

Extented Abstract

This study focuses on and discusses certain major tezene [plectrum] patterns used in the performance and teaching of baglama, the instrument considered as the primary cultural transmitter of Anatolian music. It examines the performative stages that baglama has undergone the performative techniques of tezene.

Some of the various factors that are thought to affect the formation stage of tezene patterns in the traditional sense are as follows: the local melody and rhythmic structure, the transfer of melodies performed with other instruments to baglama, the new and effective sound of the instrument to be heard in high volume so that performers can feel the rhythmic weighing of the person or team playing in order to accompany the folkloric dances performed in the region as an effort to create performative techniques.

Undoubtedly, musical abilities and instrument playing abilities of baglama performers have been very decisive in the formation of these tezene patterns in the historical process. Master instrumentalists’ performance in past and present, the dissemination of special tezene patterns seen in different regions and genres to works of other regions and genres by them proves their functionality in these processes from past to present.

Tezene patterns form the basis of baglama performance and teaching in terms of baglama playing technique. The study attempts to develop a systematic categorization of tezene patterns according to their methodical structures and performance levels. It intends to create a consistent terminological language by taking into account the application areas and technical features of special tezene patterns.

In this study, qualitative research techniques such as document analysis, observations, descriptive and comparative analysis were used.

In the study, the procedural structure of Turkish folk music was taken as a reference in the classification of tezene patterns and the formation of the systematic of baglama teaching, since the works that constitute the performative area of baglama are evaluated within THM method structure and its organic connection with the rhythmic structure. The classification was made on the basis of performance level of tezene patterns, the structure of style-tezene pattern, their performance characteristics and application areas.

With this classification, it is aimed to establish theoretical and performative parallelism with the harmony and integration of the procedural structure of folk music and tezene patterns in baglama performance simultaneously in the same context.

Tezene patterns; divided into three subcategories as as main tezene patterns, combined tezene patterns and mixed tezene patterns according to their application areas, musical technical performance features and folk music procedural structure. These tezene patterns classified by dividing into classes corresponding to basic performance level, intermediate performance level and advanced performance level are also presented in tables. They are also classified among themselves as first stage, second stage and third stage. It is predicted that the classification of these tezene patterns will serve as an instrument for the formation of a gradual education process from easy to difficult in baglama teaching.

It has been observed that the expression of special tezene patterns, which were formed during processes after the transition to playing techniques, with local concepts and region or city names, did not generally coincide with application areas in the performance and performative technical functionality.

For this reason, the enlargement and generalization of performative areas of special tezene patterns necessitated the re-evaluation of the attitude as a phenomenon in baglama with new approaches and classifications.

Specific tezene patterns, called attitude, are various advanced performative techniques encountered in every style, in every locale/region and in works of special quality. More than half a century of publications, education and many different forms of interaction have played roles in this widespread use of special tezene patterns. This performative transformation and prevalence in practice led to the general adoption of special tezene patterns in baglama performance and to this degree in generalization out of its local-regional character. For this reason, this study emphasizes that at this point the general position of special tezene patterns is not comprehensive enough to express conceptually with local concepts.

In this context, given the prevalence of special tezene patterns defined as manners/attitudes in terms of region and genre, a new category has been proposed in theis study by taking into account the performative and technical features because it is inadequate to express general level with local levels and the existing conceptual expressions do not contain technical features, and they do not overlap with the application area in terms of region and genre. In this direction, it is suggested that matching the terminological equivalents of the application areas and technical functionality and naming and expressing them accordingly will be especially important in terms of baglama teaching methodology.

In the aforementioned classification, it has been evaluated on the basis of the fact that special tezene patterns are a means of producing a technical sound in the application, they are re-coded and renamed according to alphabetic and mathematical data.

To sum up, by means of taking the classification of the procedural structure of folk music as a reference, reclassifying and naming tezene patterns in terms of basic performance level, intermediate performance level and advanced performance level in baglama playing and naming them according to their technical characteristics, it is aimed to create a systematic codification regarding the performative tezene patterns. It has been evaluated that they will contribute to the future of baglama teaching in the context of an instrumental relationship and it will shed light on its functionality.

Keywords

bağlama teaching, bağlama methodologyperformative attitude in bağlama playing, tezene patterns, tezene techniques

Bu çalışma, bağlama icrasında ve öğretiminde kullanılan belli başlı tezene kalıplarının; uygulama alanları, icra teknikleri, usul ve tartım açısından tasnifi amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Tarihsel süreç içerisinde bağlama çalgısının icrasal manada geçirdiği evreler ve tezene icra teknikleri incelenmiştir. Çalışmada konuya dair kaynak taraması, gözlem ve deneyimler ışığında tezene ile çalım tekniğine geçiş ile beraber oluşan pek çok farklı tezene kalıplarının oluşum süreç ve koşulları değerlendirilmiştir. Tezeneli çalım tekniğine geçiş ile beraber oluşan tezene kalıplarının yöresel kavram ve bölge veya şehir isimleri ile ifade edilmesinin icradaki uygulama alanları ve icrasal teknik işlevselliği ile örtüşmediği görülmüştür. Bu tezene kalıpları; uygulama alanları, müziksel teknik icra niteliklerine ve halk müziği usul yapısına göre yeniden değerlendirilerek ana tezene kalıpları, birleşik tezene kalıpları ve karma tezene kalıpları olmak üzere üç sınıfa ayrılmıştır. Temel icra düzeyi, orta icra düzeyi ve ileri icra düzeyine karşılık gelen sınıflara ayrılarak tasnif edilen bu tezene kalıpları kendi içinde de ayrıca birinci aşama, ikinci aşama ve üçüncü aşama şeklinde detaylı bir şekilde tasnife tabi tutularak tablolar halinde gösterilmiştir. Çalışmada, tezeneli bağlama icra tekniğinde kullanılan mevcut isimlendirmeler yerine, müziksel icra özelliklerine göre tezene kalıplarının teknik analizi sonucunda yeni terminolojik isimlendirmeler oluşturulmuştur. Tezene kalıplarının mevcut isimlendirmeleri ile uygulama alanlarının bölgesel çeşitliliği ve farklı tür/formlarda kullanılması arasındaki çelişkiye dikkat çekilerek bu tezene kalıpları alfabetik ve matematiksel veriler kullanılarak kodlanmıştır. Tezene kalıplarının tasnifi, bağlama öğretiminde kolaydan zora doğru aşamalı bir eğitim sürecinin oluşması amacına araçlık edeceği öngörülmüştür. Ayrıca icra tekniğinden yola çıkılarak yapılan tasnifin icrada müziksel terminoloji açısından ortak bir dil birlikteliğinin oluşmasına katkı sunacağı değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır. Sonuç olarak halk müziği usul yapısının tasnifi referans alınarak, bağlamadaki temel icra düzeyi, orta icra düzeyi ve ileri icra düzeyi açısından tezene kalıplarının yeniden tasnif edilmesi ve isimlendirilmesi, ileri icra tezene kalıplarının bir kod sistematiğinin oluşturulması geleceğin bağlama öğretim formasyonuna ve işlevselliğine ışık tutacağı değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler

bağlama öğretimi, bağlama metodu, bağlamada tavır, tezene kalıpları, tezene teknikleri, ses işleme tekniği