Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy on October 30, 1922. This date corresponds to the aftermath of the Mudanya Armistace of October 11, 1922 which concluded the Turkish national struggles in Anatolia. Henceforth, Turkey focused her foreign policy on the peace conference which would be held in Lausanne. In the meantime issues such as the abolition of Ottoman Sultanate and change in the position of caliphate became dominant in her domestic policy. Due to various reasons, there was partial proximity between Italy and Turkey in the aftermath of the Turkish National Struggle. In the following years, however, the negative attitudes displayed by Mussolini towards Turkey following his rise in power and his increasing harsh tone gradually damage the referred initial positive aura between the two countries. Yet, there was no severe reaction to, or criticism of, Mussolini, particularly because the Turkish leaders were preoccupied at the time with a number of pressing domestic and foreign issues, and they did not want to risk alienating Italy on the eve of the Lausanne talks.