After long years of using warfarin for atrial fibrillation, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) became available for decreasing the risk of ischemic stroke. Our aim was to observe the physicians prescribing patterns of NOACs. This prospective observational study included patients using NOACs applying consecutively to our outpatient clinic. Physical examination was performed, and patient history, electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, and biochemical results were collected. Bleeding and ischemic stroke risk scores (HAS-BLED and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores) were calculated. We evaluated patients' characteristics, risk factors, concomitant drug usage, and physicians' choices. The study consisted of 174 patients using NOACs (dabigatran 113 patients, rivaroxaban 61 patients), with a mean age of 70.7 +/- 8.8 years. The mean HAS-BLED score was 1.74 +/- 0.9 and the mean CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was 3.7 +/- 1.2. Fifty-three (30.4%) patients were prescribed low-dose NOAC according to the optimal dose, and 12 (6.8%) patients were prescribed high-dose NOAC according to the optimal dose. We compared optimal dose and undertreatment groups to find out if there was any predicting factor for physicians to use low dose of NOACs, but there was no significant difference between the two groups for age, sex, concomitant chronic disease, and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and HAS-BLED scores. NOACs were prescribed to patients mostly with high CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and low HAS-BLED score. Low-dose NOAC usage according to the optimal dose was frequent. Frequent coagulation monitoring and drug incompliance are big deficiencies at atrial fibrillation in use of warfarin. NOACs overcome these difficulties; however, physicians' hesitation to use NOACs with the optimal dosage may be another limitation in real-world practice. Copyright (c) 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.