The aim of this study was to evaluate whether insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and plasma lipid profile are associated with circulating adiponectin levels in nondiabetic healthy women. The authors also assessed whether adiponectin has any effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-linked paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity and on the susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins to oxidation. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 91 nondiabetic premenopausal women, and the patients were then divided into quartiles. Circulating adiponectin was found to be associated with body mass index (r = .55, P < .001). After adjustment for body mass index, adiponectin showed an inverse correlation with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = -.41, P < .001) and a positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = .43, P < .001). In linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR, tumor necrosis factor a, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found to be independently associated with adiponectin. However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-linked PON-1 activity and the susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins to in vitro oxidation did not seem to be related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2009;11:672-677. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.