It is well established that hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Data from epidemiological and observational studies have demonstrated increasing risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death and all cause mortality associated with high blood pressure. Despite the significance of the problem with respect to overall health, control of high blood pressure is far from being optimal. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey have shown that those achieving target blood pressure values less than 140/90 mmHg are only 34% of the hypertensive population. The situation is no better in the rest of the world and even worse in the developing countries. Epidemological transition taking place in developing countries with a decline in communicable diseases and an increase in noncommunicable have resulted in an improvement in life expectancy, thus causing predictable shifts in causes of death. Aging of the populations, urbanization and socioeconomic changes in the developing world have led to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension, with low control rates due to scarce health resources and insufficient health infrastructure. Thus prevention, detection, treatment and control of hypertension play a crucial role in protection of cardiovascular disease, not only in the developed countries but also in the developing world and implementation of hypertension guidelines should be reinforced around the world.