Oral health is an important indicator of general or systemic health. On the other hand, it is well known that oral health is also affected by social, economic, and ecological factors. Thus oral health status and its indicators may be reflected in the condition of a skeletal population. In this study oral health indicators of human skeletons dated to the Middle Byzantine period and unearthed from the Tlos excavations were investigated and sought to answer two specific questions. The preliminary anthropological observations on this skeletal material has already revealed that the population of Tlos was relatively healthy. The answer to the first question is whether it is coincident with the overall health profile to oral health indicators. The second question relates to the prosperity and economic growth that occurred in Byzantine society from 900 to 1200 A.D. and whether this can be traced on the human skeleton.