This study aimed to analyze surgeons' learning curve for thymoma resection with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Two hundred and eleven myasthenia gravis patients had VATS thymic resections, including 25 patients with a thymoma. Three groups of surgeries, according to the order of operations, were analyzed: Group A comprised the first 70 thymectomies, Group B comprised the second 70 thymectomies, and Group C comprised the final 71 thymectomies. We compared the groups on a set of preoperative (age, gender, body mass index, and Osserman stage), operative (number in each group, size, and Masaoka stage), and postoperative (complications and length of stay) variables. A significant difference was observed in the number of thymoma operations (Group A: four patients, Group B: seven patients, and Group C: 14 patients; P: 0.031) and the duration of operation (Group A: 66 min, Group B: 52 min, and Group C: 48 min; P: 0.024). A strong correlation was found between the duration of operation and order of patients (Pearson r: -0.554, P: 0.000). We recommend the start of a program for the resection of thymoma with VATS after surgical staff have performed 70 VATS thymectomy operations. (C) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.