Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, the famous French general surgeon, is very well known among urologists regarding the disease called by his name: Peyronie's disease. Because his father was also a surgeon, he followed his family tradition and became a doctor. He had gained most of his surgical skills during the civil wars in the 16th century. His academic career in France was outstanding. He was one of the two founders of the Royal Academy of Surgery. He was also the First Surgeon to King Louis XV. Even though he was a great surgeon and university professor, his legacy consists only of numerous case reports and not even one comprehensive textbook. However, his paper on induratio penis plastica attached his name and credit to the disease, and since then it has been called Peyronie's disease. This chapter consists of the history of the disease, starting with early assumptions of its pathophysiology and treatment up to the current knowledge, which still has dilemmas.