The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, including lean tissue mass, fat tissue mass, and bone mineral content, of the paretic leg with that of the nonaffected leg in patients with stroke and to evaluate the effects of time since stroke, spasticity, and motor recovery on the body composition specifically within the first year after stroke. Thirty-five stroke patients with mean age and standard deviation of 62.69 +/- 9.54 years were included in the study. A full physical examination including Brunnstrom motor recovery and modified Ashworth spasticity scale was performed. Fat tissue mass (grams), lean tissue mass (grams), and bone mineral content (grams) of both the paretic and nonaffected lower extremities were obtained from the total body scans determined by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar M-PRO). Lean tissue mass and bone mineral content of the paretic side were found to be significantly lower than those of the nonaffected side (P<0.05). A significant correlation was found between the lean tissue mass and bone mineral content of both the paretic and nonaffected legs after adjusting for age and weight (P=0.000, r=0.679; P=0.000, r=0.634, respectively). Bone mineral content and lean tissue mass of both the paretic and nonaffected sides showed a significant negative correlation with time since stroke in patients with stroke for <= 1 year (P<0.05). A higher lean tissue mass and bone mineral content were found in patients with moderate to high spasticity in comparison with patients with low or no spasticity (P<0.05). Stroke causes loss of lean tissue mass and bone mineral content prominently in the paretic side. The loss increases with increasing time since stroke. Spasticity seems to help in preventing the loss of bone mineral content and lean tissue mass.