Neutropenic enteropathy (NE) is used to describe the inflammation of the bowel in neutropenic patients under aggressive chemotherapy, mainly for lymphoproliferative and hematologic malignancies. Surgical intervention may be required in patients with the advent of the disease. We report our experience in 7 children with NE who had to be treated surgically. Absolute neutrophil counts were less than 1000/mm3 in all, with positive blood cultures in five patients. Four patients recovered with rapid resolution of neutropenia, while three patients died with persistent neutropenia.