Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a poorly understood group of disorders caused by one or more genetic aberrations in the bone marrow-derived cell line responsible for hematopoiesis. Recent advances in genetic medicine have offered new insights into the epigenesis as well as the prognosis of MDS, but have not resulted in new or improved curative treatment options. Bone marrow transplantation, introduced before the advent of genetic medicine, is still the only potential cure. Advances in other medical and pharmaceutical areas have broadened the scope of supportive care and disease-modifying therapies, and treating physicians now have a broad range of disease management options depending on a patient's likely prognosis. There is now clear evidence that appropriate supportive care and therapeutic intervention can improve progression-free and overall survival of MDS patients.