Our purpose in this study was to investigate the protective effects of selenium and vitamin E on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in rats with convulsion under hyperthermic conditions. To eliminate the effect of sex on BBB, we performed our study on 4- to 5-week-old prepubertal rat pups. Evans-blue was used as a BBB tracer. Convulsions were induced by administration of i.p. pentylenetetrazol. In the selenium group, 4 ppm selenium was added to the drinking water for 4-5 weeks. Vitamin E was administered at 700 mg/kg ip. It was shown that the convulsions, both under normothermic and hyperthermic conditions, caused widespread increase in the BBB permeability (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant difference was observed among female and male rats (f [1, 102]6.387,p < 0.05). In convulsions under normothermic conditions, there was a further increase in the BBB permeability (F[3, 102]=43.534, p < 0.001) and a greater increase of permeability in males compared to females (F[1, 102]=6.387, p < 0.05). Selenium and vitamin E significantly decreased the BBB destruction caused by convulsions under hyperthermic conditions in males (p < 0.05). Treatment with selenium or vitamin E has beneficial effects on the BBB breakdown during convulsions. But gender differences are very important in BBB permeability under pathological conditions and antioxidant treatments.