Purpose The aim of this study is to determine the effect of psychosocial distress and self-transcendence on resilience in individuals receiving cancer treatment. This descriptive-correlational study was conducted with individuals receiving cancer treatment (N = 105) from in the chemotherapy unit of a private hospital. Conclusion According to the results of the regression analysis, it was determined that psychosocial distress had a negative relationship with resilience, while self-transcendence had a positive relationship with resilience (p < 0.05). Practice Implication The results show that resilience is negatively affected by psychosocial distress and positively affected by self-transcendence. Psychiatric nurses can help patients with cancer find sources of self-transcendence and resilience.