We report our success with somatostatin and propranolol to treat small-for-size syndrome that occurred despite splenic artery ligation. A 48-year-old woman with cirrhosis due to autoimmune hepatitis underwent living-donor liver transplant; her graft-tobody weight ratio of the right lobe was 0.91%. After arterial reperfusion, portal pressure and flow were 24 cm H2O and 2.22 L/min (ie, 360 mL/100g graft/min), respectively. Following splenic artery ligation, the portal pressure decreased to 16 cm H2O and portal flow to 1.74 L/min (ie, 282 mL/100g graft/min). On the second postoperative day, small-for-size syndrome was diagnosed based on the marked prolongation of prothrombin time (international normalized ratio, 4.4), hyperbilirubinemia (359.1 micromol/L), rapid escalation of transaminases (alanine aminotransferase 2488 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 1075 U/L) and very high portal flow rate (> 90 cm/sec). Oral propranolol (40 mg/day b.i.d.) and somatostatin infusion (250-mu g bolus followed by perfusion at a rate of 250 pg/h for 5 days) were started. Prothrombin time and transaminase levels began to decrease the following day, although the bilirubin level increased to 495.9 mu mol/L before returning to normal. The patient was discharged in excellent health 5 weeks after surgery. Despite reduction of portal pressure by splenic artery ligation, small-for-size syndrome may develop in patients with persistent high portal flow. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful treatment of small-for-size syndrome by somatostatin and propranolol in the clinical setting.