Predicting recovery potential of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is challenging. We investigated whether the gray-to-white matter ratio (GWR) predicts recovery of cognitive function (CF) and quality of life (QOL) of these patients. We analyzed data of 69 patients with aSAH. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, and neurological status were recorded. One year after aSAH, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) tests were administered to the patients, and brain volumes of patients were examined using MRI. Three years after aSAH, MoCA and SF-36 tests were conducted again. Differences between the test scores 1 and 3 years after aSAH were evaluated (Delta MoCA and Delta SF-36). Patients with Delta MoCA >= 4 points and those with Delta SF-36 >= 8 points were referred to as good MoCA and SF-36 recovery, respectively. Delta MoCA correlated with GWR in male and female patients (females: p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.581; males: p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.481). In female patients, GWR > 1.34 predicted good MoCA recovery with 82.3% sensitivity and 80% specificity, and in male patients, GWR > 1.36 predicted good MoCA recovery with 80% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Delta SF-36 correlated with GWR in male and female patients (females: p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.479; males: p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.627). In female patients, GWR > 1.35 predicted good SF-36 recovery with 74% sensitivity and 84% specificity, and in male patients, GWR > 1.38 predicted good SF-36 recovery with 72% sensitivity and 92% specificity. GWR is a good predictor of the recovery of CF and QOL in patients with aSAH and, thus, can help physicians to better organize rehabilitation of patients.