Fuel biodegradation linked to sulfate reduction can lead to corrosion of the metallic infrastructure in a variety of marine environments. However, the biological stability of emerging biofuels and their potential impact on copper-nickel alloys commonly used in marine systems has not been well documented. Two potential naval biofuels (Camelina-JP5 and Fisher-Tropsch-F76) and their petroleum-derived counterparts (JP5 and F76) were critically assessed in seawater/sediment incubations containing a metal coupon (70/30 Cu-Ni alloy). Relative to a fuel-unamended control (1.2 +/- 0.4 mu M/d), Camelina-JP5 (86.4 +/- 1.6 mu M/ d) and JP5 (77.6 +/- 8.3 M/d) stimulated much higher rates of sulfate reduction than either FT-F76 (11.4 +/- 2.7 mu M/d) or F76 (38.4 +/- 3.7 mu M/d). The general corrosion rate (r(2) = 0.91) and pitting corrosion (r(2) = 0.92) correlated with sulfate loss in these incubations. Despite differences in microbial community structure on the metal or in the aqueous or sediment phases, sulfate reducing bacteria affiliated with Desulfarculaceae and Desulfobacteraceae became predominant upon fuel amendment. The identification of alkylsuccinates and alkylbenzylsuccinates attested to anaerobic metabolism of fuel hydrocarbons. Sequences related to Desulfobulbaceae were highly enriched (34.2-64.8%) on the Cu-Ni metal surface, regardless of whether the incubation received a fuel amendment. These results demonstrate that the anaerobic metabolism of biofuel linked to sulfate reduction can exacerbate the corrosion of Cu-Ni alloys. Given the relative lability of Camelina-JP5, particular precaution should be taken when incorporating this hydroprocessed biofuel into marine environments serviced by a Cu-Ni metallic infrastructure. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.