Neutron sources employed in different applications in both medicine and industry. Due to the harmful effects of neutron particles on living organisms, radiation shields have played a vital role in radiation protection against neutrons. In recent decade, numerous investigations conducted on the design and fabrication of nanocomposites as more efficient shielding materials against fast and thermal neutrons. A range of different nanoparticles for a spectrum of neutron energies investigated. However, there is no comprehensive review concerning the shielding properties on these newly proposed shielding materials against neutrons. The current review is an attempt to gather the information provided by the published papers in this regard. The neutron attenuation of nanocomposites and their ordinary counterparts discussed and compared. In addition, the effect of influential parameters, including particle size, neutron energy, particle type, and materials composition analyzed.