Over the last 50 years, the survival rates in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased remarkably. The optimal use of antileukemic agents in cooperative group protocols, central nervous system-directed treatment, improvements in supportive care, and recognition of biological, clinical, and treatment response characteristics that predict patients with a higher or a lower risk of treatment failure have improved 5-year event-free survival rates, reaching more than 85%, and 5-year overall survival rates, reaching more than 90%. Consequently, it has become increasingly important to characterize the occurrence of long-term late effects. ALL treatments have been associated with increased risks for adverse outcomes such as late mortality, secondary malignancies, and neurological, cardiac, endocrine, and social/psychological disorders. In recent decades, cooperative groups in Europe and in the United States have provided essential information about the long-term effects of ALL therapy, giving recommendations for screening as well as facilitating new approaches for reducing late-term morbidity and mortality. Current frontline protocols continue to examine ways to lower the intensity and amount of therapy to reduce late effects, whereas survivorship studies attempt to predict such adverse effects precisely and develop targeted prevention and treatment strategies.