Hematological malignancies (HM) are a group of neoplasms derived from the cells of the bone marrow and lymphatic system. Genetic factors leading to susceptibility to HM have been investigated for years but little is known yet. Low molecular weight polypeptide (LMP) 2 and LMP7 genes are important subunits of the immunoproteasome and play significant role in antigen presentation. The polymorphisms of LMP genes have been reported to be risk factors for various types of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of LMP2 and LMP7 polymorphisms with the occurrence of particular types of HM. A total of 132 patients with HM and 130 control subjects were investigated. No significant difference was obtained in the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of LMP7 gene in HM patients and the control group. On the other hand, the prevalence of LMP2-AA genotype was found to be higher in acute myeolid leukemia (AML) patients while it was significantly lower in multiple myeloma (MM) cases than in the control subjects. Our results suggested that LMP7 could not be a risk factor for susceptibility to HM, whereas LMP2 polymorphisms could play a role in the development of AML and MM.