Sex estimation from the radiographic measurements of the humerus

Atamtürk D., Akçal M. A. , DUYAR İ. , Mas N., ATAMTÜRK DUYAR D.

Eurasian Journal of Anthropology, vol.1, no.2, pp.99-108, 2010 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 1 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Title of Journal : Eurasian Journal of Anthropology
  • Page Numbers: pp.99-108


Diagnosis of sex from a skeleton or individual bones is vital to bioarchaleology and forensic anthropology. The aims of this study are to examine the applicability of the measurements taken from the humerus to assess sex, and to contribute to establishing discriminant function equations for Anatolian populations for medicolegal applications. The material for this study consisted of archived x-ray films of patients who enter the clinics of emergency and elective orthopedics of Göztepe Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul. In total, 84 x-ray films (46 females and 38 males) were analysed. The ages of the individuals vary between 20 and 79 years, with an average of 48.96 years. Five dimensions, including maximum length, vertical head diameter, head + greater tubercle diameter, right-left diameter at midshaft, and epicondylar breadth were taken and subjected to direct and stepwise discriminat function analysis. Our analyses revealed that the proximal part of the humerus have greater diagnostic accuracy than distal and middle parts. Accuracy of correct classification vary between 73.2% (rigth-left diameter at midshaft) and 93.2% (vertical head diameter) for univariate analyses. When the multivariate analyses was conducted, three functions were produced, with the accuracy of ranging between 90.0% and 92.7%. These findings suggested that the dimensions of the humerus, especially the measurements taken from the proximal parts, could be used successfuly for sex diagnosis.