Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible association of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) 192/55 polymorphisms with lung cancer (LC) risk in a Turkish population. Materials and Methods: A population-based, case-control study was carried out, including 223 patients with LC and 234 controls. The frequencies of PON1 192155 genotypes were compared in patient and control groups using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: Distribution of PON1 192 R (+) genotype was found to be significantly higher in patients with LC compared to the controls (odds ratio: 1.497, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-2.166). This difference was especially noteworthy in patients with small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: This is the first case-control study on the association between PON1 polymorphisms and LC susceptibility in a Turkish population. Our results suggest that PON1 192 polymorphsim is associated with an increased risk of LC in the Turkish population and may be a useful genetic marker for small cell and squamous cell carcinoma.