THE "-OMAS" and "-OPIAS": Targeted and Philosophical Considerations Regarding Hamartomas, Choristomas, Teratomas, Ectopias, and Heterotopias in Pediatric Otorhinolaryngologic Pathology

Ozolek J. A. , Soluk Tekkesin M.

HEAD & NECK PATHOLOGY, vol.15, no.1, pp.25-40, 2021 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12105-020-01251-y
  • Title of Journal : HEAD & NECK PATHOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.25-40


The spectrum of "developmental" lesions that occur in the head and neck predominantly congenital in origin and arising at birth and/or discovered in childhood is broad and fascinating. These have been grouped into categories such as "ectopias", "heterotopias", "hamartomas", and "choristomas". On a philosophical and consequently systematic level, these lesions, mostly benign tumors seem to lack a true understanding of the pathogenetic foundation on which to base a more unified taxonomic designation. In this review, we will consider some of these select tumors as they represent syndromic associations (nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma and DICER1 syndrome), the lingual choristoma from the perspective of its nomenclature and classification, lesions with ectopic meningothelial elements, and teratomas and the enigmatic "hairy polyp" in reference to a broader discussion of pathogenesis and pluripotent cells in the head and neck. A consistent thread will be how these lesions are designated with some final thoughts on future directions regarding the investigation of their pathogenesis and taxonomic nomenclature.