Background. Certain cytokine gene polymorphisms (CGPs). have been shown to be associated with renal transplant rejection episodes or graft outcomes. We sought to evaluate the relationships between gene polymorphisms and acute rejection episodes (RG, n = 19) versus stable graft function (NRG, n = 71) in transplant recipients compared with healthy control subjects (HCG, n = 150). The follow-up time period was 18 months. Using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers with the Heidelberg kit we genotyped 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms distributed across 13 cytokine and cytokine receptor genes.