With the development of new cement-based raw materials, foaming agents and fillers used for special applications of foam concrete, the use of foam concretes has become widespread. Foam concrete is a type of concrete that stands out with its lightness, waste potential, controlled low strength, thermal insulation, acoustics performance, and durability. The knowledge base is still developing for this particular building material. This article describes in detail the fresh, hardened, and physical properties of foam concrete. The properties of materials such as cement, aggregate, foam, and fiber used in foam concrete production are explained and their effects on microstructure are discussed. In addition, physical properties, such as fresh state properties, fresh state and consistency, stability, workability, drying shrinkage, air void system, and water absorption, as well as strength and durability properties are emphasized. The main findings of the presented study are to show the current level of the cement-based foam concretes and their shortcomings, which needs more investigations. The effect of fibers on the characteristics of foam concrete and acoustic characteristic of foam concretes are seen as the main topics to be focused on in the studies.