Effects of topical nasal steroids and diclofenac on the nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a double-blind experimental study

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VURALKAN E., COBANOGLU H. B., Arslan A., ARSLAN S., Mungan S., Tatar S., ...More

EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF OTO-RHINO-LARYNGOLOGY, vol.271, no.8, pp.2213-2217, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


This study aimed to explore the effects of hyperbaric

oxygen (HBO2) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity

in rats, when administered for one (at 2.5 ATA, 3 HBO2

sessions a day) and five days (at 2.5 ATA, 3 HBO2

sessions a day for the first two days, and twice a day

for the last three days). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)

was used to evaluate the BBB permeability. Superoxide

dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) and

malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in the

cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions. Frequent

vesicles containing HRP reaction products were observed

in capillary endothelial cells in the cerebral

cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to HBO2.

The accumulation of HRP reaction products in these

brain regions was significantly higher than that of superoxide dismutase.

control animals (P<0.01). In animals that received HBO2,

MDA levels (P<0.01 for 5 days) and GSH (p<0.05 for one

day, and P<0.01 for five days) were decreased in the

cerebral cortex, whereas SOD activities slightly

increased in this region. In animals that received HBO2

significant decreases in MDA (P<0.05 for one day;

P<0.01 for five days) and GSH (P<0.05 for five days) levels

were observed in the hippocampus region, but SOD

activities decreased in this region.

We showed that HBO2 administered with the doses

described above impaired BBB integrity in otherwise

healthy rats. Therefore, we suggest that the results

of this study should be taken into consideration when

patients are exposed to HBO2 with the same doses.

We aimed to evaluate nasal mucosal changes and efficiency of nasal steroids and diclofenac on nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment. Forty adult Albino-Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. Group 1 (control group) (n = 10) not exposed to hyperbaric or enhanced oxygen concentrations; group 2 (HBO group) (n = 10) underwent only HBO treatment; group 3 (n = 10) received HBO and intranasal mometasone furoate (10 mu l/day); group 4 (n = 10) treated with HBO and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg/day ip). Specimens of nasal mucosa were collected after sacrificing and dissection of animals. The specimens were processed for light microscopic evaluation, and then evaluated histopathologically for fibroblastic proliferation and inflammation. Regarding the scores of inflammation, the level of inflammation in the control group was significantly less severe than the other groups (p < 0.05). Evaluation of the fibrosis scores showed that the scores of both groups 2 and 4 were significantly increased (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups 2, 3, and 4 as for fibrosis and inflammation (p > 0.05). Chronic HBO treatment induced mild inflammation of the nasal mucosa. These effects cannot be prevented adequately by administration of nasal steroids and diclofenac.