In the present study, we investigated whether alpha-lipoic acid administration could have prooxidant or antioxidant effect on oxidative protein damage parameters such as protein carbonyl, nitrotyrosine, advanced oxidation protein products, and protein thiol, as well as oxidative stress parameters such as total thiol, nonprotein thiol, and lipid hydroperoxide in the plasma proteins of aged rats. Alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg body wt/day) was administrated intraperitoneally to the Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days. Protein carbonyl, nitrotyrosine, and advanced oxidation protein products levels were increased, protein thiol, nonprotein thiol, and total thiol levels were not changed in the plasma proteins of aged rats with alpha-lipoic acid administration. In aging rats with and without alpha-lipoic acid administration, plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased compared with those of the control group. The increased levels of protein oxidation markers such as protein carbonyl, nitrotyrosine and advanced oxidation protein products in the plasma proteins of alpha-lipoic acid-administrated aged rats compared with nonadministrated aged rats suggests that protein oxidation is increased in alpha-lipoic acid-administrated aged rats. We assume that an explanation for our findings regarding alpha-lipoic acid administration on protein oxidation markers in the plasma proteins of aged rats may be due to the prooxidant effects of alpha-lipoic acid.