The aim of this work was to investigate the biochemical and histological effects of vanadyl sulfate on blood glucose, urea, and creatinine in serum and nonenzymatic glycosylation and glutathione levels in kidney tissue of normal and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) diabetic rats. Vanadyl sulfate was administered by gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg. After 60 d of treatment, serum urea, creatinine, and blood glucose levels significantly increased in the diabetic group but not so in the vanadyl sulfate, which showed significantly reduced serum urea and blood glucose levels and a nonsignificant reduction of serum creatinine levels. Nonenzymatic glycosylation was increased and the glutathione level was decreased in the kidney tissue of diabetic rats. Treatment with vanadyl sulfate reversed these effects. Degenerative changes were detected in diabetic animals by electron and light microscopy. Although there are individual differences in diabetic animals given vanadium, some reduction of degenerative changes were observed.