Antibiotic allergy in children with cystic fibrosis: A retrospective case-control study

Suleyman A. , Tamay Z., Guler N.

PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ppul.26073
  • Title of Journal : PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY
  • Keywords: allergy, children, cystic fibrosis, drug provocation test, multiple antibiotics, skin test, IGE-MEDIATED HYPERSENSITIVITY, DRUG HYPERSENSITIVITY, CROSS-REACTIVITY, DIAGNOSIS


Antibiotic allergy is a big problem that may affect the treatment and life quality of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Aim To evaluate predictive factors for confirmed antibiotic hypersensitivity in children with CF. Methods In this case-controlled study, we examined 15 patients with CF who had been confirmed with antibiotic allergy. Additionally, we included a control group of age- and gender-matched 45 CF patients with no antibiotic allergy. The diagnosis of antibiotic allergy was confirmed in the presence of a compatible history and a positive response in the drug skin test or provocation test. Multiple drug hypersensitivity was classified according to the temporal relationship of antibiotics: (i) distant, (ii) simultaneous, and (iii) sequential. The data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Results beta-lactam allergy was confirmed in eight patients (ceftazidime n = 5, piperacillin-tazobactam n = 3) and non-beta-lactam allergy was confirmed in two patients (ciprofloxacin n = 1, azithromycin n = 1). Additionally, multiple drug hypersensitivity in five patients (distant n = 4, sequential n = 1), among whom two patients showed hypersensitivity against ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam+ ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin, two patients showed hypersensitivity against ceftazidime+ ciprofloxacin n = 2, and one patient showed hypersensitivity against piperacillin-tazobactam+ amikacin+ trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All patients (n = 13) with confirmed beta-lactam allergy were meropenem tolerant. Multivariate analysis indicated that immediate reactions (, p < 0.001) and allergic evaluation in the first six months after the reaction (p = 0.036) were significant risk factors for the prediction of antibiotic hypersensitivity. Conclusion Beta-lactam antibiotic allergy is the most commonly confirmed drug allergy in children with CF. However, unlike normal children, ceftazidime and piperacillin-tazobactam account for the majority.