Anticholinergic Burden, Polypharmacy, and Cognition in Parkinson's Disease Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

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SÜMBÜL ŞEKERCİ B., Bilgic B., PASİN Ö., Demir M. E., Hanagasi H. A.

DEMENTIA AND GERIATRIC COGNITIVE DISORDERS, vol.51, no.5, pp.386-395, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1159/000526863
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.386-395
  • Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Anticholinergic burden, Polypharmacy, Mild cognitive impairment, Cognition disorders, DIAGNOSTIC-CRITERIA, POPULATION, RISK, ASSOCIATIONS, DEMENTIA, OUTCOMES, SCALE, BRAIN, MEN
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: Anticholinergic burden may be an important risk factor for the cognitive impairment. Especially in polypharmacy, even drugs with low anticholinergic effects may contribute to a significant anticholinergic burden. The drugs with anticholinergic effects are used in treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, it is important to screen for polypharmacy and anticholinergic burden in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 58 patients with PD. PD-MCI was diagnosed according to MDS Level 2 Comprehensive Assessment. Cognitive performance (attention - working memory, executive functions, language, memory, and visuospatial functions) of patients was evaluated. The anticholinergic burden was scored by Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale, Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), and Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). Results: There was no significant difference in anticholinergic burden between PD-MCI and PD-normal cognition. A significant concordance was observed between ACB, ARS, and ADS scores (p < 0.001; Kendall's W = 0.653). While the variable predicting anticholinergic burden was the total number of drugs for ACB and ADS scales, it was the number of antiparkinson drugs for ARS scale. Conclusion: Patients with PD are at high risk for polypharmacy and anticholinergic burden. Anticholinergic burden should be considered in the selection of drugs, especially for comorbidities in patients with PD. No significant correlation was found between the cognition and anticholinergic burden in patients with PD-MCI. Although the risk scores of antiparkinson and other drugs were different among the 3 scales, significant concordance was observed between scales.