Separation Individuation and Transitional Object Use in Daily Smoker Adolescents

Ates B. O., KADAK M. T., Hoda E. D., Demir T., DOĞANGÜN B.

SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE, vol.56, no.14, pp.2252-2258, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 56 Issue: 14
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10826084.2021.1981393
  • Journal Name: SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, IBZ Online, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index, Social services abstracts, Sociological abstracts, SportDiscus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2252-2258
  • Keywords: transitional object, separation, individuation, daily smoking, adolescence, CIGARETTE-SMOKING, ATTACHMENT, ADDICTION, TOBACCO
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Background Smoking is an important problem in adolescence. Early developmental trajectories are also associated with cigarette smoking. Objectives The present study aims to evaluate the separation-individuation process and use of transitional objects in daily smoker adolescents. Method The research included 97 adolescents who were daily smokers and 210 adolescents who were nonsmokers. Transitional object assessment questionnaire, strength and difficulties questionnaire- adolescent form(SDQ), children's depression inventory(CDI) and state-trait anxiety inventory for children(STAI-C), separation and individuation test of adolescence(SITA) were applied. Results SITA subscales scores of engulfment anxiety, need denial, and rejection expectancy was higher and separation anxiety, teacher enmeshment, nurturance seeking scores were statistically significantly lower in smoker adolescents than nonsmokers. In logistic regression analysis, separation anxiety(odds ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval[CI] 0.87-0.98), teacher enmeshment(OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98), practicing mirroring(OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02,1.08) and rejection expectancy (OR 1.06 95% CI 1.02,1.11) were found to be predictors of daily smoking. The use of a childhood transitional object for feeling tired and the use of an adolescent transitional object for feeling anxious and tired was found to be significantly higher in smokers. Conclusions There are some differences in the process of separation-individuation and the use of transitional objects in the smoker group. This suggests that early developmental characteristics may be associated with smoking. Further studies are needed to better understand the causal relationship between smoking and the separation-individuation process and transitional object use.