To assess the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of PTDM, a total of 61 non-diabetic children (24 girls, 37 boys, age: 14.5 +/- 2.1 yr) were examined after their first kidney transplantation (37.3 +/- 21.6 months) with an OGTT. At baseline, 16 (26.2%) patients had IGT, 45 (73.8%) had NGT, and no patient had PTDM. No significant difference was shown between TAC- and CSA-treated patients in terms of IGT. Higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.011), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and triglyceride levels (p < 0.01), HOMA-IR (p = 0.013) and lower HOMA-%beta (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with IGT. Fifty-four patients were re-evaluated after six months; eight patients with baseline IGT (50%) improved to NGT, three (19%) developed PTDM requiring insulin therapy, five (31%) remained with IGT, and four patients progressed from NGT to either IGT (two) or PTDM (two). These 12 progressive patients had significantly higher total cholesterol (p < 0.05), triglycerides (p < 0.05), HOMA-IR (p < 0.01) and lower HOMA-%beta (p < 0.0) than non-progressive patients at baseline. We can conclude that post-transplantation glucose abnormalities are common in Turkish pediatric kidney recipients, and higher BMI z-scores and triglyceride concentrations are the main risk factors. Considering that the progressive patients are significantly more insulin resistant at baseline, we suggest that the utility of both HOMA-IR and HOMA-%beta in predicting future risk of PTDM and/or IGT should be evaluated in children.