Diatoms associated with the order Bacillariales, Rhopalodiales and Surirellales are well known to be present in marine and brackish waters. In this study, diatoms in the western Black Sea coasts of Turkey were investigated with ultrastructure details. Species belonging to the Bacillariales, Rhopalodiales and Surirellales were subject to light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, and a total of twenty-four taxa were investigated. This study examines details on the morphology and biogeography of the taxa with remarks on their distribution in Turkey. The results revealed that four species were reported on the Turkish coasts for the first time. These species were Nitzschia liebethruthii, N. volvendirostrata, Epithemia guettingeri and Campylodiscus scalaris.