In the winter of 2006-2007, several parotitis cases were reported in different provinces of Turkey. Serological and virological studies were undertaken to investigate these cases with the aim of determining the genotype of the mumps virus (MuV) circulating in Turkey. Samples from 23 cases-Ankara (n:5), Kirklareli (n:4), Mugla (n:10), Isparta (n:3), Trabzon (n:1)-with a diagnosis of clinical parotitis were investigated. Serum samples were tested against mumps IgM and IgG, nested PCR amplification of a 639-bp fragment encompassing the entire SH gene was performed using buccal swabs, and PCR products were sequenced. Of 18 serum samples, 16 (88.9%) were positive for mumps IgM. Seven (30.4%) of 23 buccal swab samples were positive by PCR. In five PCR-positive cases, the sample was also positive for mumps IgM, and serum samples were not available from two of the PCR- positive cases. There was 98% identity between the different sequences, and all were identified as genotype H. The sequences were most similar to sequences identified in Spain, Japan, Switzerland and the UK, and less closely related to the H strains identified in Belarus, Korea and Russia. This is the first report of the mumps virus genotypes circulating in Turkey. Turkey is, geographically, a bridge between Europe and Asia, and therefore, a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of MuV in Turkey may led to improved tracking of the circulation of strains between the two continents. Moreover, there is a need to further investigate the existence of other genotypes in Turkey.