The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) antibodies (ab) for the prevention of fibrotic effects of priapism in a rat model. In total, 30 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Priapism with 6 h (group 1), priapism with 6 h + ab (group 2), priapism with 24 h (group 3), priapism with 24 h + ab (group 4) and control (group 5). Priapism was induced with a vacuum erection device and a rubber band was placed at the base of the erect penis. At 1 h after the initiation of priapism, TGF-β1 antibodies were given intracavernosaly. All rats underwent electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve after 8 weeks. Intracavernous and systemic blood pressures were measured during the procedure. Rats in group 1 showed significantly higher (intracavemosal pressure (ICP) pressures to cavernous nerve stimulation and had higher ICP/BP ratios when compared to other groups. Similarly, histopathologic examination revealed less fibrosis in group 2, compared with the other groups. Consequently, TGF-β1 antibodies antagonise the fibrotic effects of TGF-β1, especially in cases with duration of priapism less than 6 h.