Dynamic assessment of the relationship between oxidative stress and apoptotic pathway in embryonic fibroblast cells exposed to glycidamide: possible protective role of hesperidin


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.30, no.18, pp.53295-53308, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 18
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-26108-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.53295-53308
  • Keywords: Glycidamide, Embryonic fibroblast cells, Apoptotic pathway, Oxidative stress, Hesperidin, Vitamin C
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Worldwide research is being conducted to determine the level of acrylamide (ACR) that humans are exposed to from food and environmental sources. Glycidamide (GA) is an important epoxide metabolite of ACR, and its cytotoxicity is stronger than ACR. In this study, it was aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanisms of GA on the induction of apoptosis in embryonic fibroblast cells. The toxicogenomic profile of GA was studied in terms of both apoptotic and oxidative stress. Embryonic fibroblast cells were exposed to GA (1 and 1000 µM) in the presence and absence of hesperidin (Hes) (20 µM) or vitamin C (VitC) (50 µM) for 24 h. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme levels and gene expressions, apoptotic, and oxidative stress-related gene expressions were measured in embryonic fibroblast cells. The results showed that GA induced cytotoxicity and diminished the expression levels of apoptotic genes. Furthermore, GA increased the levels of oxidative stress markers and significantly changed the oxidative stress-related gene expression. It has been determined that antioxidant molecules are considerably suppressed in GA-induced toxicity at both gene and enzyme levels. In addition to these results, when VitC, which is known to have strong antioxidant properties in eliminating the toxic effects of GA, is taken as reference, it has been proven that Hes has stronger antioxidant properties compared to VitC. Finally, GA-induced apoptosis in embryonic fibroblast cells is associated with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent oxidative stress and Hes has antioxidant properties with strong effects. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]